Abstract: Two of the most important authors on Islamic civilization, historian Bernard Lewis and cultural critic Edward Said, have opposite views as to how scholars should approach the study of the Islamic civilization. On Lewis's side, a modernist style, without regard to ideological problems, and with a firm conviction on the possibility of gaining practical knowledge about his subject. Lewis uses history as his scholarly tool. On Said's side, the postmodern attitude, mistrust on the power of ideology to permeate each facet of human life, including scholarship. He uses literary criticism as his scholarly tool. Lewis preaches scholarly knowledge independent of power forces; Said lectures on the power of imperialism and its influence on the academic world. This paper is an analysis of both authors' works; a measured balance between their systems and what their opposite views mean to contemporary scholarship.