2008 Conference - Paper Abstracts
CONFERENCE PAPER ABSTRACTS
LAW AND SOCIAL CONTROL
1. Illicit Narcotics Drugs-The Control Policy, Law, and International Cooperation
Oklahoma State University, Tulsa
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
China has had a long and complicated history with regard to the use and control of narcotics drugs, from its failed attempts by the Qing and the Nationalist governments during the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, to the successful eradication campaigns in the 1950s by the PRC. As a by-product of the economic reforms, the use and trafficking of narcotics drugs reemerged in mainland China in recent decades. This paper examines the PRC’s attempts to control and eliminate this social evil in aspects of governmental policies, related laws, and its international cooperation efforts. Drawing on available published data, it will also assess the effectiveness of these comprehensive measures in the control of the consumption and trafficking of illicit narcotics drugs. Lessons and future prospects will be discussed based on past national and international experiences.
2. Societal Type and Attitude toward Prostitution: Where does China Belong?
University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Wayne State University
This paper investigates the effect of social type on the attitude toward prostitution, using data from the World Value Surveys with a special focus on China. We first review the history of penal policy toward prostitution in China. Then we advance the theoretical linkage between societal type and attitude toward prostitution. We compare the contemporary public attitude toward prostitution in China with those in other nations. The data show that the type of society is related to attitude toward prostitution. Publics in autocratic and/or Muslim societies have much stronger consensus in rejecting prostitution. In contrast, the consensus is much weaker in more secular, democratic, and post-materialist societies, such Spain and the U.S. We conclude with a call for returning to the ancient wisdom by legalizing prostitution so that China can gain better control of the situation.
3. Poetic Revelations of Corruption in China by Its Officials
Helen Xiaoyan Wu
University of Toronto
Some of the popular rhymes about official corruption in today’s China are read in the first person as if they were written by the officials themselves. Yet there is truly a type of poetry created by officials with real names. Both groups of verses are wonderful revelations of many aspects of corrupt officials, such as their inner feelings toward the Party, passion for mistresses, motivation to become officials, justification for their corrupt behaviours, regret about being jailed, or hope for a new life. In the form of short couplets or long ballads, in classical imitations or contemporary free verse, some of the works are of high quality, others are mediocre. Still other verses by officials have been regarded as extremely ugly in terms of content and style.
Focused on the eight poems composed by six officials who have now been either jailed or executed, this presentation will first explore the revelations supplied by the poems and supported by media coverage. Such an examination extends to the souls of the official-poets, but more perceptively to the soil on which corrupt officials are cultivated. The discussion will also compare the officials’ poems with the anonymous rhymes in the first person, the poetic voices, insights, and imagination of the public poking fun at corruption, with corrupt officials as the target. Studying who says what in both groups of poems, this paper comes to a conclusion as to what these poems mean, and also their meaning in the context of China’s rampant corruption.
4. Business Disputes and Arbitration in China
Jinjun Zheng (郑进军)
Xi’an Arbitration Tribunal
China’s booming economy has led to an unprecedented level of business interactions among all kinds of business entities, big or small, international or domestic, private or state-owned. These increased economic activities have also been accompanied by an increasing number of business disputes, which, if unresolved, would not only disrupt normal economic activities and growth, but also lead to other political and social problems. While the Arbitration Tribunal plays a major role in dealing with business disputes, many people, especially new business enterprise or international investors don’t know much about this important judicial institution, let alone utilize its help when involved in business disputes. This presentation will discuss the principle of business arbitration in China, the functions of the Arbitration Tribunal, and the process of business arbitration.
HISTORY IN RETROSPECT- CHINA, ASIA AND THE WORLD
1. Globalizing World History in China
State University of New York at Cortland
This paper will discuss the recent efforts of Chinese historians to globalize world history studies, which, in the Chinese context, means to reconstruct world history teaching and texts from a more global perspective. The paper will focus on two important aspects of (and challenges to) this endeavor: how to free historians from the long-lasting Eurocentric worldview, especially in discovering the main themes and patterns of development of the modern world since 1500, and how to incorporate the Chinese experience in the narrative of the global past. The paper will shed light on how cultural Chinese reflected and acted to connect their works to what they perceived to be the global "main stream" development and at the same time to uphold their own cultural and intellectual identity.
2. The Rape of Nanking - Why Is It a “Forgotten Holocaust”?
Weber State University
Iris Chang, the late author of “The Rape of Nanking”, subtitled her book “The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II”. In her book, she argued that the Nanking Massacre was not only a holocaust, this “holocaust” was even more cruel and ruthless than Nazi Germany’s well known Jewish holocaust. Using Robert Leckie’s description in his book, he said, “Nothing the Nazis under Hitler would do to disgrace their own victories could rival the atrocities of Japanese soldiers under Gen. Iwane Matsui” In Iris Chang’s own words, she stated that:
The Rape of Nanking should be remembered not only for the number of people slaughtered but for the cruel manner in which many met their deaths. Chinese men were used for bayonet practice and in decapitation contests. An estimated 20,000 - 80,000 Chinese women were raped. Many soldiers went beyond rape to disembowel women, slice off their breasts, nail them alive to wall. Fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons their mothers, as other family members watched. Not only did live burials, castration, the carving of organs, and the roasting of people become routine, but more diabolical tortures were practiced, such as hanging people by their tongues on iron hooks or burying people to their waists and watching them get torn apart by German shepherds. So sickening was the spectacle that even the Nazis in the city were horrified, one proclaiming the massacre to be the work of “bestial machinery.”
The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the main reasons and explanations why the rape of Nanking is a forgotten holocaust. And why Germany and Japan have such different ways to deal with their wartime crimes in the past. There are several explanations that have been addressed by numerous scholars in their writings, such as cold war effect, Japan’s own denial, and the Chinese civil war etc. This paper is trying to cover more areas such as racial factors and other sociological factors. It also will address the consequences (Sino-Japan relations) of Japan’s denial or neglect over the crimes committed by the Japanese Imperial Army during the Second World War.
The major sources for this paper are from secondary materials either published or not published. Some of the ideas and assumptions are the author’s own discovery and summaries. The unique characteristics of this paper is using sociological perspective to analyze the phenomenon at hand
3. A Study of the French Motivations in Building the Yunnan – Vietnam
Railway (1903-1908) as Revealed in Diplomatic and Commercial Documents
Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania
Popular opinion holds that the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway (1903-1910) was solely constructed for exploiting Yunnans natural and economic resources. Such view, however, does not reflect the broader picture. In this paper, the author explores, in addition to economic perspectives, a number of factors, including ideological tradition, French economic and political crisis, and competition among Western powers. Documents are drawn from diplomatic and commercial correspondence. The finding was that the French government likely embellished the economic perspectives to shift domestic pressure. The finding also reveals Chinas strong resistance to industrialization and globalization in late 19th to early 20th centuries.
4. Comparative Analysis of Germany and Japan in Post World War II Reconciliation
Weber State University
In brief, it is a comparative analysis of how each nation in the post World War II years has or has not reconciled their war crimes with nations they victimized between 1935-1945.
The report begins with a somewhat eerie comparison of war crimes committed by these two Axis nations during the decade before the end of hostilities, August, 1945. The number of dead, acts of genocide, and medical experimentation were equaled and exceeded by the Japanese who, unlike their German comrades, also utilized biological and chemical weapons, engaged acts of voluntary cannibalism, and developed a sophisticated sex slave operation to accommodate Japanese troops within occupied nations. Upon detailing the acts of crimes against humanity by these two nations, the paper details how each country differs in their reconciliation within the world community during post World War II years, even to the current day.
The Process of Reconciliation, a theory developed by Luc Huyse, is the template for the comparison of behaviors for the two nations. The Three Stages of Reconciliation include 1) Replacing Fear by Non-Violent Coexistence; 2) When Fear No Longer Rules - Building confidence and Trust; and 3) Towards empathy. Accompanying the three stages, Huyse suggests Introduction of the Codes of Democracy and a Just Socio-Economic Order that include four additional comparative factors, 1) Healing; 2) Restorative Justice; 3) Truth Telling; and 4) Reparation.
Comparatively, Japan has not equaled their World War II counterpart (Germany) toward reconciliation with their victims. There has been little or no healing and restorative justice between Japan and victimized nations/territories of China, Korea, Burma, India, and Southeast Asia. The Japanese lag far behind the Germans regarding an educational process of truth telling that informs its rising generation of the appropriate history and circumstances of 1935-1945 Japanese occupation of China, India, Southeast Asia, Burma, and Korea. Lastly, Japan has paid less than one percent of reparation funds to victimized nations compared to Germany. To date, only one museum is dedicated to the Asian Holocaust (40 million dead) within the United States, while dozens of museums and memorials are celebrated regarding the Nazi (German) Holocaust. Germany has instituted and funds several museums and memorials, within their own borders, as a remembrance of the World War II atrocities they committed, while none, in kind, exist in Japan. Germans have enacted laws requiring that the rising generations of German people become educated and aware of their deeds of that period, while Japan has made no proviso to properly inform their people of their actions during the same period
2007 marks the 71st anniversary of the Rape of Nanking. Imperial Japanese forces entered China and drove their way to Nanking (then capital) between November and December, 1937. Within a two month span, more than 200,000 Chinese citizens were killed, and more than 20,000 women raped. Organizers of the Hawaii International Conference on Social Sciences are organizing special panels to commemorate this significant event in Asia history. One of the panels is chaired by Dr. Huiying Wei-Arthus of Weber State University. A large population of Asians living in Hawaii is to be invited to this event. It certainly will draw some noticeable public attention in light of the political tension between Japan and China. Japan continually denies atrocities during the invasion of China through their occupation into1945. As recently as March 2, 2007 Japanese Prime Minister Abe rejected the files and claims regarding World War II sex slave operations (See New York Times, March 2, 2007). My paper, described above, as part of a panel presentation will open a dialog with scholars attempting to obtain common ground with others who have different opinions about this historical event.
For unexplainable reasons, this paper and project is important to me. I have great sympathy for those Asian nations victimized by Imperial Japanese atrocities. My personal background has ties with both the victims and victimizers. I wish to express my research for balanced understanding and awareness of these issues that have political and social impact within our present times.
POWER POLITICS IN THE CHANGING WORLD
1. Weaving Goodbye to Hegemony
The era of imperialist domination over the world has long gone with the national independent movements in Asia, Africa and Latin America. We are weaving goodbye to imperialist hegemony. We are hailing the international cooperation in dealing with issues in trade, politics and cultural differences. Yet the ideology and practice of “Manifesto Destiny” remains. The instability and regional conflicts in the Middle East and the Iraq War demonstrate the danger of remaining forces of imperialism. The recent riot in Tibet in China also demonstrates the continuing intrusion of sovereignty of an independent nation by imperialism. This paper tries to retrospect some of the historical evidence to understand the issue of the Tibetan independence. Historical evidence, as the paper will present, demonstrates that imperialist interference, ignorance of history and blindness of facts of many people, as well as the misunderstanding of the diversity of China’s population and cultures manipulated the Tibetan issue. Yet time has changed as the world is entering a new era when nations are seeking cooperation rather than domination. With new relations that treasure equality, mutual understanding and the acceptance of multi-cultures, the concept and practice of Globalization is rapidly replacing the concept and practice of imperialism. As the historian Arnold Toynbee observed half a century ago, Western imperialism united the globe, but it did not assure that the West world dominate forever—materially or morally. The opening of China herself and the fact-based media coverage will eventually help the world to justify history and the Tibetan Issue.
2. The New Asia Hemisphere and the West: A Re-Examination of Global Power Shifts in the 21st Century
William Y. Jiang, Shu Zhou
San Jose State University
This article will examine the political and economic power shifts between the new Asia Hemisphere, represented primarily by China and India, and the West, represented primarily by the United States. After a broad sweeping historical review of global power shifts over the last two thousand years of human history, the article traces the current rapid rise of Asia (especially China and India) and the current precipitous fall of the West, especially the American Empire. The article further elaborates on the rise of the new Asia hemisphere and the decline of the United States with abundance of data and evidence. The article then proscribes some strategies for the Asia hemisphere, especially China, on how to take advantage of the rise. The last part of the article discusses the obligations and responsibilities that come with of being a super power and how China should behave as one.
3. China's New Diplomacy in the South Pacific: Rationale, Practice, and Significance
This paper examine s China’s new diplomacy towards the South Pacific since the early 1990s, with focus on China’s efforts in obtaining energy and other resources, its trade and investment in the region, and its growing political, diplomatic and cultural clout in the area. The paper analyzes specific motivations of China’s new diplomacy such as domestic need for growth, efforts to squeeze Taiwan’s international space, and China’s desire to enhance its soft power abroad. The paper also looks at various strategies China has adopted such as the highest-level involvement, no political strings attached, and cultural and societal exchanges.
Theoretically the paper explores why China is developing a new model of foreign relations and how China is experiencing a paradigm shift in its diplomacy. While realism and idealism may help understand China’s changing behavior, the author argues that social constructivism can best explain the rationale and practice of China’s new model of external politics. China’s relatively successful new diplomacy in the South Pacific is a potent example of South-South cooperation. This paper will finally assess how China’s new diplomacy affects the political economy of the South Pacific and China itself.
4. The Political Psychology of Issues of Japan and Taiwan in China’s Foreign Policy
University of Louisville
In China’s foreign policy making, the issues of Taiwan and Japan are special: These issues are not strategic issues, unlike China’s relations with the United States, but cultural and psychological issues. Taiwan has small strategic values for China. Taiwan becomes vitally important for China, because the Chinese government has made it so. Without a powerful communist ideology to unite the Chinese people, the Chinese government uses nationalism instead. China’s problems with Japan are for the most part historical. The Chinese nationalistic feelings toward Japan were not that strong three decades ago. Yet, with the time passing by, the Chinese nationalistic feelings towards Japan have become stronger. This has resulted in some strange phenomenon: Koreans resent the Japanese for what they did during WWII by not buying Japanese cars; the Chinese, in spite of rhetoric, have been eager to buy Japanese products. This paper examines these issues.
CHINA’S SOCIAL WELFARE REFORM
1. China's Social Security System: Its Challenges and Solution
Missouri State University
As for many other nations, China is facing the issue of how to provide social security benefits to its aging population. This paper will examine the Chinese Social Security system from the following perspectives: the sustainability of its funding sources and the fairness of the system. The author will discuss these issues from the angle of China’s historical development and from a comparative angle. For the latter, the author will compare China’s system to other nation’s like the U.S. This comparison will draw lessons and generate insights for China’s social security system reform. The paper will end the discussion with possible solutions to the issue.
2. Predicament and Its Solution of Chinese Women during Globalization
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
Globalization is the great transnational integration of the world’s economies, social norms, cultures, and political systems, and has become an irresistible trend since the 1970s. China is part of the global village, so globalization has a profound impact on every aspect of Chinese women’s’ lives. What does globalization mean to Chinese women? Can globalization make their lives better? How do Chinese women handle the challenges of globalization in the twenty-first century? This paper will examine the relationship between globalization and Chinese women in a global context, analyze the positive and negative impact of globalization on their lives, and explore the strategies of resolving women’s problems which arise from globalization.
3. Legal Aid to Workers in China
North Carolina A&T State University
This paper examines why and how the legal aid program was established in post-Mao China and how it has affected Chinese workers. It argues that the legal aid program was designed by the authorities in collaboration with legal professionals to assist low-income workers in their legal activities (especially lawsuits) against employers and that it was implemented gradually with the establishment of legal aid centers in cities and towns and with the involvement of individual lawyers. The legal aid program has functioned to the benefit of many workers, who would have otherwise been unable to enter any lawsuits because of their poverty (concrete cases will be analyzed to show how workers have benefited from the legal aid program). The legal aid program has helped build a sound legal infrastructure and hence rule of law in China.
4. Mechanism Design Based on the Multiple Principal— Agent Relationship in the China’s Private Pension
Hubei University of Economics
Mechanism design based on the multiple principal—agent relationship in the trust enterprise annuity The multiple principal-agent relationships in the trust enterprise annuity led to a series of adverse selection and moral hazard, which will cause non-cooperation and inefficiency, i.e. principal-agent cost. Under asymmetric information, Principal-agent incentive model and the optimal contract model reveal that the core of the trust enterprise annuity design is to establish the incentive and constraint mechanisms. Based on the analysis of the principal-agent relationship in the enterprise annuity, this paper present some suggestions for the mechanism design of the trust enterprise annuity：1.To strengthen information disclosure; 2. To improve cooperation and coordination among regulatory institutions; 3. To establish an incentive compatibility mechanism in the enterprise annuity system; 4. To perfect the fully competitive agent
BECOMING AN ACADEMIC ADMINISTRATOR: SHARING EXPERIENCE
Organizer and Moderator:
Nova Southeastern University
1. Honggang Yang
Dean of GraduateSchool of Humanities and Social Sciences
Nova Southeastern University
2. Zong-Guo Xia
Associate Provost for Graduate Studies and Research
The University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth
3. Jin Wang
Dean of Academic Services
The University of Tampa
LIBRARY AND EAST ASIA
1. Promoting Collaboration and Exchange between Chinese and US Libraries through the CALA 21st Century Librarian Seminar Series Program
Ohio State University
Globalization has had a significant impact on the development of information and the role of libraries in the world in the past several decades. The rise of China has also drawn immense attraction to the development of libraries on the global stage. As a result, global collaboration and exchange between and among libraries in the US and China have become critical factors in the process of building relationship between the two countries.
This presentation will illustrate the example of the CALA21st Century Librarian Seminar Series Program whose aim is at promoting collaboration and exchange among libraries and library associations in the US and China and how it involves librarians from the two countries on a large scale. Over the past three years since its inception, the program has witnessed significant successes and substantial impacts on libraries in the US and China. The presenters will discuss specific issues including the goals, procedures, processes, assessment, and future directions of the program.
2. New Local Gazetteers in China: A Survey of Freely Available Online Sources
Recent years have witnessed radical changes and development in publishing industry in China. One important change is that more and more new local gazetteers (or local histories) and yearbooks are compiled and published in book format, and such materials are also made increasingly available in electronic format through commercial databases. It is very difficult for a single institution to conduct and maintain comprehensive collection development of these resources. What are new local gazetteers and yearbooks? Why so many titles are published currently? Are there any free online full texts available? What and where are the free online full texts? This article is intended to address these questions. I will briefly examine the institutionalization of compiling and publishing local gazetteers in China, especially today’s China. I also would like to present the result of a survey on freely available online full texts of such materials that I conducted through the year of 2008. While commercial databases of local gazetteers are not all affordable, it is hoped that students, researchers and librarians of Chinese studies will find the free online full-text local gazetteers and yearbooks useful.
3. Characteristics of CJK Digital Resources in the OCLC WorldCat
Taemin Kim Park
Indiana University, Bloomington
Since the inception of OCLC’s CORC (Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Cooperative Online Resource Catalog) project in Jan. 1999, we have witnessed a steady increase of digital resources that have been added into the OCLC WorldCat. Libraries have been challenged to integrate these resources into their traditional collections and services ever since the appearance of World Wide Web. Access to a larger portion of digital resources is still being provided through avenues other than library’s online public catalog systems such as various digital library initiatives, electronic journal list, or Google Book Search project. However, we believe that access to the more scholarly and selected resources should be made available via online catalogs. Cataloging records in WorldCat are contributed following the current AACR2R and MARC 21 formats.
This research will report the growth of CJK digital resources in term of the size, types of material, characteristics, and trends in cataloging activities in the OCLC WorldCat. The research will measure the extent of e-scholarship in China, Japan, and Korea as reflected in WorldCat.
4. Digital Issues for Newspaper Access and Preservation: A Case Study of
Chinese Newspapers Published in North America
University of New Jersey, Rutgers
With the example of Chinese-language press in North America, this
paper discusses three questions related to newspaper access and
preservation: (a) How can digital tools be used to enhance
researchers' access to print newspapers? (b) What are the challenges
of newspaper digitization? (c) What is the library's role in
preserving newspaper contents that are "born digital"?
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OF OVERSEAS CHINESE
1. Getting Into Elite Colleges for Overseas Chinese Progeny
William Y. Jiang, Ph.D.
San Jose State University
All overseas Chinese parents in the United States share one common dream: sending their children to the most elite of the elite colleges, as represented by Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford (HYPS, pronounced as “haips”) and other Ivy League schools (including of course Cornell). The competition for a valued spot in these colleges has never been as intense as it is today. All indications show that the competition is going to get fiercer year by year. After a broad sweeping historical review of the competition in HYPS, this article will explore the current nature and extent of the competition. The article will then examine HYPS’ changing admission policies and their rationale. In addition, the article will discuss the alarming and recurring accusation that these elite colleges practice discriminatory admission policies against Asian students. A subsequent portion of article will provide overseas Chinese parents and their students with numerous strategies on winning the game of getting into these elite colleges, including a SWOT analysis of Chinese students, the proper preparations for the competition, and the best packaging of student applications.
2. An Exploratory Study of Chinese Americans’ Cultural Identity
Ginny Qin Zhan
Kennesaw State University
This study examined overseas Chinese’s cultural identity. A total of 97 Chinese American professionals responded to a survey. Ninety-four percent of the respondents had a bachelor’s or graduate degree, with an average of 12 years in the United States. Suinn’s GEQ (General Ethnicity Questionnaire – Chinese version) was used to measure Chinese cultural identity. Items on life satisfaction and views on aspects of the United States, developed specifically for this survey, were used to measure immigrant acculturation. Preliminary analysis indicated that overall, a majority of the people in the sample reported a bicultural orientation, and they were satisfied with their life in the United States. However, there are a few areas where the respondents were not very satisfied with. These results will be discussed in the context of immigrant acculturation process with relevant psychological and sociological theories.
3. A Chinese Malaysian in Taiwan: Negarakuku and a Song of Exile in the Diaspora
Koh Keng We
This article examines the controversy surrounding a Chinese Malaysian student’s use of the Malaysian anthem in a rap song criticising the corruption of Malaysia and its marginalisation of the ethnic Chinese. Race and religion have been crucial in the imagining of and contestations over the Malaysian nation. They became taboo subjects in the public sphere after the 13 May racial riots in 1969. Language, education, and the mass media became important fields of contestation between the Chinese communities and the Malay dominant government. With the growing state control of traditional public media such as television, radio, and newspapers, the internet thus became an important space for the stifled public sphere. Concomitantly, dissatisfaction with the dominant party coalition has led increasingly to the growth of a multi-ethnic opposition that encompasses the different ethnic groups. Wee’s songs and the political backlash resulting from the government’s attempts to suppress it exemplify the convergence of these forces. They also tell us something about the ways in which ethnicity, diaspora, and nationalism intertwine in the imaginings and world-view of a Chinese Malaysian student who felt himself displaced by the national education system. Taiwan, an important cultural and political node in the Chinese overseas imagination, constituted escape, opportunity and an important cultural and political influence but he remains oriented towards his homeland. His songs show how his identity is framed within the local (Muar), the ethnic (vis-a-vis the Malays on the one hand and the other Chinese linguistic communities on the other) and the nation (Malaysia and vis-a`-vis Singapore).
COMPARATIVE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
1. Pre-K and Elementary Education in China: Challenges and Opportunities
University of North Florida
Since 1949, the year of founding the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Chinese government has set up a comprehensive and complete educational system. It is the biggest educational system in the world with 701,097 schools at different levels and a total enrollment of 242,637,200 students. Chinese educational system consists of basic preschool education (before the age of 6); primary education (6 years of schooling; 5 years in rural areas); lower secondary (junior middle) school education (3 years or 4 years of schooling); upper secondary (senior high) school education (3 years of schooling); higher education (4 years for Bachelor degrees, and 2-3 years for non-degree specialized courses); and postgraduate education (2-3 years for Masters; 2-3 years for Decorates).
Along with the fast growth of national DGP for years in China while the economics status in western countries are keeping decline, the pre-K and elementary education in China today are facing great challenges, so are having lot of opportunities. This presentation will explore those challenges and opportunities based on the observation the presenter conducted in Changsha, Hunan and Nanjing, Jiangsu. And the presenter will discuss the trends of development in Pre-and Elementary Education and the strategies to meet the challenges and take the advantages of those opportunities.
2. Nationalism and History Education: Revisit the Issue
Metropolitan State College of Denver
In recent years, history education in China has shown some very positive signs of progress from the rigidity of earlier years. Yet, there still exist a lot of blind spots or “forbidden areas” that may become more problematic if not dealt with carefully. Quite a few of these “spots” and “areas” actually have a lot of things to do with the rise of the strong nationalism that has carried the country into the new century. The paper will try to trace some of the developments to explore these progress and problems as well as the linkage between the education in history and the Chinese nationalism. It is this author ‘s wish that the future efforts in developing new history curriculum will bear some fruits which can help the Chinese young people to become more mature and thoughtful so as to shoulder China’s greater share of responsibilities in the 21st century world.
3. 中国的义务教育: 从普及到均衡
Hubei University of Economics
4. Cross-cultural Impact on Organizational Learning: A Comparative Study between the Netherlands and China
Based on the theory of cross-cultural management and organizational learning, this paper would comparatively analyze the role of culture differences between China and the Netherlands in organizational learning processes, climate, and capabilities respectively, and this study would offer three propositions to stimulate more empirical studies and future research on how to build a learning organization in MNCs in China.
EAST ASIA IN WORLD ECONOMY
1. FDI New Trend: A Change in the Intra-industry Trade Structure between China and Japan
Yuesheng Wang, Tao Tao, Xiangdong Ma
It is generally believed that Japan's cost-oriented and export-oriented direct investment has brought the intra-industry trade between China and Japan，that is, China imports the parts from Japan, processes them and then exports them to Japan. In this paper, we looke into whether Japan's market-oriented investment in China after 2000 changes the trade structure between these two countries. We conclude that the new investment trend, besides the continuity of maintaining the vertical specialization, improves China's export structure, forms vertical intra-industry trade based on Chinese comparative advantage.
2. Comparative Analysis on Sino-US Maize Competitiveness
Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
The maize production cost in China is 10%-30% higher than in the United States, and China's trade competitiveness index is about -0.04 to -0.51, while it's about 0.83-0.97 in the United States. In addition, the market share of China maize is roughly 10%, compared with 50% of the United States, and the indicative comparative advantage of China is 1.3-2.3, along with 1.6-1.8 in the United States. In order to enhance the international competitiveness of Chinese maize, measures should be taken to enhance the maize breeding, improve the maize quality, reduce the circulation costs and promote the maize processing.
(Construction of Coordinating Mechanism of Exchange Rates in East Asia: Theory and Reality)
Laying Qi (漆腊应), Baolin Sun
Hubei University of Economics
TEACHING CHINESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES
City University of New York-Brooklyn College
1. Chinese Culture and Civilization in the American College Curriculum
State University of New York-Old Westbury
2. Teaching Chinese in American Universities: Pedagogical Competence and Teacher Preparation
City University of New York -BMCC
3. CLTA-GNY & Resources of Chinese Language Teaching
City University of New York-Brooklyn College
4. What Comes First: Grammar, Characters or Sentence Patterns? Priorities of Teaching Chinese in a Non-Chinese Environment
City University of New York-Brooklyn College
5. Intercultural Sensitivity and Chinese Teaching in the U.S.
City University of New York-Brooklyn College
CHINA’S HIGHER EDUCATION AND ITS REFORMS
1. Challenges and Opportunities of China's Humanities and Social Sciences
City University of New York, Brooklyn College
Due to historical, political and cultural reasons, scholars of the humanities and social sciences in China have followed tracks divergent from those adopted by their counterparts in the West. Such differences have created difficulties for exchanges between scholars in China and in the West.
Scholars of Chinese descent working in various disciplines of the humanities and social sciences in the United States have long been concerned about the development of these disciplines in China and have been working very hard to build meaningful connecting between the two sides across the Pacific Ocean. One way has been to travel back to give lectures at Chinese colleges and universities on the most recent developments in their respective fields. Another more effective way is to organize a book series that presents a panoramic view of Western research in the humanities and social sciences. In this series, each volume is devoted to one discipline, tracing, summarizing and critiquing its most recent developments; each of the chapters in one volume focuses on one particular area in the discipline by discussing its origin, history, research approaches, major theories, most representative figures and their influential works, with special attention to new trends and hot issues over recent years. The chapter authors in each volume not only summarize various theoretical approaches and research methodologies, but also offer their scholarly opinions on the issues, allowing the reader to understand this particular research area from multiple perspectives. The book series will only help scholars in the humanities and social sciences in China to understand the latest developments in these fields in the West, but also help promote effective exchange between China and the West in the humanities and social sciences.
This paper will analyze how this book series will have impact on the studies of the humanities and social sciences in China.
Hao Li (李浩)
Northwestern University of China
(Issues on Psychology of Chinese College Students and Intervention Strategies)
Hubei University of Economics
Students' psychological crisis intervention is a key factor in psychological education for all colleges and universities. It is also a hot topic among educators who are doing research on it. In order to deal with this issue, colleges and universities shall show great concern to this work, establish the concept of psychological crisis intervention and the relative mechanism，grasp the objects in crisis and take effective strategies.
4. Study on Developing a Specialized Teaching Staff for College Students’ Career Development in China
Central University of Finance and Economics
Henan Institute of Science and Technology
With the change of the way and environment of employment to college students, it is more and more important to instruct college students to find a satisfactory job. Till now, little time is spent on some specific researches conducted by domestic psychologists on the university employment-direction, and few research findings of the qualitative factors of the university employment-directors are found. In China, college students' employment has become a hot issue and a universal social concern.. This is because the issue involves tens and thousands of households and social stability is at stake. In recent years, China has been confronted with a grave situation in which many college graduates failed to find jobs and eventually become a "new jobless group". In fact, with higher education, providing education in students' career development has presented itself as a major task. The conflicting reality is that in many universities and colleges the work has been weak, inadequate or ineffective largely because of a lack of qualified teaching staff Therefore, developing specialized teaching staff has become an urgent task, which, if well fulfilled, will satisfy the students' need for career development, contribute to the deepening of higher education reform, and facilitate development of a harmonious society. The present research focuses on developing a specialized teaching staff for the college students' career development. It stresses the necessity and urgency of the task by presenting a historical perspective and comparisons. It also utilizes the teaching staff specialization theory and theories concerning college students' career development to explain the professional features of the teaching staff for career development.
This research lays emphasis on gathering proof and evidence. All conclusions on various aspects of the issue as well as recommendations are based on numerous interviews and massive questionnaires. To break the barrier, this research utilizes the dimensions of essential factors of the professional quality of the employment-directors by a self-edited questionnaire, which is fairly reliable and valid.
MODERNIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA
1. Universal Values v. Chinese Peculiarity: Chinese Scholars’ Diverse Discourse on Political Reform
Georgia Perimeter College and the Carter Center
2008 is the 30th anniversary of the reform and opening up in China. The last three decades have seen unprecedented economic and social transformation in China that has made China an economic and financial powerhouse. Although there is not much debate on Deng Xiaoping’s claim that the eventual success of China’s reform hinges upon the success of political reform, there are wide differences on what constitute the contents of political reform and what path China should take in launching this reform.
It is not a surprise to see the top Chinese leadership repeatedly insisting that China’s will not deviate from the current political doctrines (namely, the Chinese political system will adhere to the three-pillars of Party leadership, letting people be their own masters and rule of law), scholars have formed two very entrenched camps in delineating China’s political reform measures. One group declares that either China has already established a strong democratic system of peculiar Chinese characteristics or it is on its way to perfect such a system that is entirely different from the Western definition of democracy. They see the West being disingenuous, using democracy as a wedge to pry open China’s Great Wall of legitimacy, weakening the supremacy of the Communist Party and eventually suppressing China’s breathtaking rise. The other group sees this claim of democracy of Chinese characteristics as totally absurd since a genuine democratic system cannot be built without universally recognized values such as equality, liberty, social contract and checks and balances. In other words, they see the claim that a political party can represent the will of the majority of the people without going through an open and competitive legitimating process and that it can prevent its members from seeking rent through moral persuasion and ethic self-restraint is groundless and delusional.
This paper will first trace the arguments of the two camps and examine their dissemination in the Chinese society. It will then look at if there is any possibility of the two sides intersecting, interacting and distilling a consensus that can be used by the top leadership to craft consensus and build momentum for political transformation in China. The paper will finally attempt to assess if this raging debate has any impact on China’s quest for democratization.
2. Democratic Trial in China in the Early 20th Century: Research on Song Jiaoren’s Thoughts about Democracy and Constitutionalism
Yunfei Chi (迟云飞)
Capital Normal University of China
The pursuit of democracy and constitutionalism in China in the 20th century was very precarious. Different from many other thoughts which kept their eyes on publishing and propagating, Song’s thoughts about democratic and constitutionalism were really practiced, though the practice failed finally. For that reason, Song’s thoughts were more valuable for research.
1.Target of constitutionalism：right of participating in government political affairs and enjoying freedom
Song held that the sovereignty of the republican should be enjoyed by all the people, because they were the main part of the state power. To ensure people’s right of participating in government political affairs, the country had to practice constitutionalism. Song once emphasized people’s right of freedom, but obviously, he as well as most members of tung-meng-hui _KMD emphasized people’s right of participating in government political affairs more important than that of freedom.
2. Elite politics: congress and party
As far as Song was concerned, he thought, all the people had the right to take part in the state power, but people’s ideas, knowledge, capability were not the same, some were common, some were especially outstanding. In fact, such outstanding people gathered to form political party, in order to lead all the people. And from the view of law, they could organize to form the congress and the state, as to stand for all the people.
3. English mode: responsible cabinet and political party cabinet
Song thought that in order to keep away from autocracy and dictatorship, Chinese government must adopt responsible cabinet to limit the president’s power, and imitate the English mode to practice party politics. That is to say, the cabinet should be organized by the party which occupied most positions in congress. But Britain carried out monarchy, while China carried out republicanism.
Obviously, in the early years of republican China, the society was short of the conditions for realizing Song’s idealism. Song carried an experiment by taking the advantage of fighting against the Qing Dynasty.
3. New Road of Urbanization in China
China Remin University
China is the most populous country in the world. The reform period since 1978 marks a new phase in China’s urbanization, in which the urban population has expanded rapidly and the level of urbanization has doubled and half in three decades.
The further urbanization of China will present the citizens and policy marks of China with major political social and economic issues over the next several decades. The process of rapid urbanization through the influx of rural people into cities has never without turmoil anywhere in the world. It will require approximately 15 million new non-farm jobs annually to provide for the number of workers that will need to leave agriculture and the growth of nation’s labor force annually over the next three decades.
China should and would choose the new road of urbanization in the world history, and Promoting urbanization with developing small, medium and large scale cities together.
4. Economic Development Vs. Human Development: A Paradigm Shift in International Development Studies and Lessens from China
In the area of international development studies, we have seen a major paradigm shift in theory and method: from a single dimension of developmental economics (focusing mainly on growth of economic sectors) to a multiple dimension of human development (emphasizing human and community capacity building) -- an interdisciplinary approach to issues pertinent to overall wellbeing of human society that includes not merely poverty relief but also social justice, gender equality, balanced eco-system in environment, quality public health, corporate social responsibility, and food security as well as food safety, etc. Such paradigm shift indicates that development is no longer seen as an end in itself but rather as both means and end, which constitutes the core value of what we now often call "sustainable development." In the case of China, there is an imbalanced development in its thirty-year modernization drive: while the country enjoys a high rate of economic growth, it comes to be equally high in terms of human and environmental costs as revealed in a series of incidents related to food safety, environmental deterioration and social justice. The trend, if not reversed, will pose a serious threat to China's sustainable development in the future.
NEW CULTURAL TRENDS IN GLOBALIZATION
1. The Emergence of Fengqing Culture in Current China
Savahna State University
This Paper discusses: (1) The origin of fenqing term; (2) It's characteristics; (3) The historic factor for its formation; (4) The social factor for its formation; (5) The psychological factor for its formation; (6) The future of fenqing culture.
2. Cultural Diversity of Modern East Asia in Literature, Film and Society
University of Ottawa
Chinese and Japanese thought are deeply rooted in the common historical, philosophical and ethical heritage of Confucianism, which is still alive in people’s minds and dominates their thinking and action. With the adaptation of Western ideas, the present culture of East Asia has developed. One the one hand, recent Chinese literature and film reflect the changes in China and have led to heated debates on cultural values. On the other hand, although Japan through its early industrialization has been exposed to the Western world earlier than China, in some societal and cultural aspects the Japanese people’s attitude and practice remain more traditional than Chinese. Based on observations, interviews, and through examining representative works and films, the paper explores Western culture influence on China and Japan which resulted in the cultural distinctiveness of East Asia. Indications are that in certain cultural aspects China is closer to the West than to Japan.
3. The Culture Value Orientation of the Historical Teleplay
Communication University of China
This paper argues that the historical teleplay shall be have epochal and process character on the mind and culture value orientation, the main social function of which is figure a character with a magnificent spirit. This kind of teleplay shall pursue the most deeply and widely historical truth when it is be written. A common saying ,The event is not imaginary, the trifle is not restrictive, which shows the authenticity of the social life nature in history phase. The right thing is to pursue the unity of the truth, good and beautiful, and avoid going bad tendency, commercialization and vulgarization, when the kind of historical character is figured strongly.
4. Marketing Mao: the Globalization Commercialization of Contemporary Art in China
Following the trajectory of the rise of contemporary art in China, this paper examines its process of commercialization and the consequences of that as a result of the globalization of contemporary art.
Through a brief outline of the history of Chinese contemporary art, and through investigating into the relationship between art and society in China, and between Chinese tradition and Western taste, this paper focuses on how globalization has created a foreign market for China’s contemporary art, how its increasing foreign consumption has commercialized the development of artists and the art community in China, how commercialization has impacted artists and the art community, and how integration into the elite both within and outside of China has added new dimensions to the evolving system of class and social divisions in China. The data for this research comes from field interviews and case studies conducted from the summer of 2006 to the summer of 2007 in China and elsewhere.
(Among the findings of this research is that, the integration of Chinese contemporary art into the world market has commercialized its producers, added to the increasing division of social class in China, and even alienated many artists from their own art. More importantly, contemporary art in China is now influenced by a homogenizing Western taste. The advantages Westernized commercialization are also discussed.)
IMPACTS OF THE 2008 BEIJING OLYMPIC GAMES AND RELATED ISSUES
1. Beijing 2008 Olympics and Chinese Culture
State University of New York College at Buffalo
With some illustrations observed from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, this is a presentation on honesty and trust, an important issue in Chinese culture discussions. Other recent events related to Chinese popular culture are also discussed for an inductive analysis. The social values and norms popular in Chinese societies are unacceptable to a Western eye, but the Chinese people with over 5 thousand years of brilliant history and the most recent prosperity have proved the merits of the Chinese culture. No culture is superior or interior to another one in this human world, and each is only different from another.
2. The Application of Chinese Culture Symbols in Global Events Brand Identification Design: A Case Study in 2008 Beijing Olympic Logo
So-Jeng Hung, Mei-Chiung Chi, Yen-Ling Chen
Chinese Culture University
Olympic is a worldwide campaign. There are a lot of countries/cities participating in the event and are aggressively to apply to host the campaign. The host country of the campaign will have the opportunity to be involved in the international activity and also bring great benefits to its tourism industry. The 2008 Olympic will take place in Beijing China, the Beijing Olympic Committee had formally introduced the Logo and Mascots of 2008 Olympic in the year of 2003 and 2005. The design of Logo and Mascots adopted the spirit of Olympic mixed the Chinese traditional art elements to present the fusion of East vs. West as well as modern vs. tradition.
This research studied communication strategy of Beijing Olympic brand identity design. This paper will discuss through the theory of branding communication to treat the role of culture sign in cross-cultural communications. To host an International sport event like Olympic campaign needs to extend the spirit of “Peace, Friendship, Honor, Fair Play and Glory” initiated from Greece. It also offers the host country a platform to promote its culture and strength of the country. The participants of the international sport events are coming from different countries thus carrying all various culture backgrounds. It is an important task for multi-national branding communication to convey the idea effectively through the design of the mean of Logo. The brand identity designs of 2008 Beijing Olympic integrate the impact of the capital of Beijing and add the Chinese traditional arts that include calligraphy, seal cutting, stamp, fish and water symbol, panda, flame, antelopes, and golden-winged swallow kites, etc.
The basic brand identification of Olympic is consisted of 5 interlocking rings. In addition to the Olympic logo, most host cities design their own logos based on different cultures of the countries/cities. It will unify the image of China and Beijing and expedite knowing of the Chinese culture for other countries in the world by selecting distinct culture image to form the unique multiple culture level framework. This case caught and integrated the cultural elements from various Chinese cultural levels like Supraculture, Macroculture, Mesoculture and Microculture. It builds the international image and considers the local characteristics to construct a unique pattern of cross-culture communication.
3. The Tibet Issue: From Historical, Cultural, Sociological, and International Perspectives
The City University of New York
The riots in Lhasa and some other locations in China during March 2008, as well as the subsequent sabotage operations against China’s Olympic Torch Relay in the five continents, have drawn an unprecedented international attention to the “Tibet issue.” However, such an attractive event development, contrary to some accepted notions and popular convictions about the issue, turns out to be a dramatic challenge to each and every one of the stakeholders who are associated with the “Tibet issue.”
This presentation will provide an analysis of why the “Tibet issue” has evolved into a much more complex and demanding challenge than formerly expected, how the push for “Free Tibet” has aroused a new surge, but a different type, of international curiosity about the Tibet issue, and what policy adjustments may be needed to help alleviate the pressure brought on by the unexpected challenge.
CULTURE, GENDER AND SOCIETY
1. Tian, Di and Ren (Heaven, Earth and Man): Pivotal Ideas of Yi Jing and their Modern Applications
City University of New York at Brooklyn
Yi Jing (Book of Changes), one of the oldest Chinese classics, is the single most important book of the traditional Chinese thought. The holistic theoretical framework of Tian, Di and Ren and the dialectical notion of Yin and Yang, served as foundations of the Chinese “world view”. Even Confucianism and Daoism were intellectual offsprings of this unique work.
Modern China's progress exhibits the strength of the Chinese thought. The core ideas of Yi Jing will continue promoting social harmony, protection of the environment and world peace.
2. Daoism as a System of Inquiry and Its Impact on Chinese Thinking
Ai Guo Han
As a philosophy and way of life, Daoism is known for its wisdom about human life and relations with nature. Its naturalistic approach about the human experience and interactions with their natural surroundings has developed into a unique way of inquiry, which has exerted a long lasting and significant influence over the Chinese culture and way of thinking. As the world is getting smaller and human experiences are no longer isolated , it is important to learn about one of China’s major systems of believes and inquiry so that the benefit of the Daoist way of life will be maximized and misunderstanding should be minimized. The main purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss Daoism as system of inquiry and the notions it has derived about the relationship between human and nature, the nature of human perception, the utility and burden of human language in the process of inquiry.
3. The System of Theories on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics Should Include
Mao Zedong Thought, the Chinese Marxism
University of Cincinnati
On October 21, 2007, the 17th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party approved the Report Presented by Comrade Hu Jintao, which called the entire Party to hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, use Deng Xiaoping theory and the important thinking of the ‘three representations’ as the guide, thoroughly implement the scientific development concept, and achieve new victories in building a well-off society in an all-round way. On the same day, the Party Congress also passed a resolution to inscribe the scientific development concept in the Party Constitution. According to the documents, while to adhere to the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is to truly adhere to Marxism, the scientific development concept has opened up a new sphere for the sinicization of Marxism. Although the Congress agreed that the scientific development concept shared the same lineage with Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping theory, and the important thinking of the “three representations,” the credit of building the system of theories on socialism with Chinese characteristics seemed to go to Deng Xiaoping theory and the “three representations.”
When Marxism came to China as a foreign doctrine, it underwent a process of sinicization, because Chinese people could accept only a Chinese Marxism. Realizing that Marxism was reduced to lifeless dogma, Mao Zedong formally called for the sinicization of Marxism in October 1938 at the Sixth Plenum of the Sixth Central Committee. He argued that Leninism was the unity of Marxist theory and Russian practice. Thus, once transplanted to China, Marxism would have to adopt a particular Chinese character, and the integral combination of general Marxist character and particular Chinese character would be sinified Marxism. At CCP’s Seventh Congress in Yenan, Chinese Marxism was officially named Mao Zedong Thought. Liu Shaoqi claimed that Mao’s thought was the best expression of Marxism applied to a given nation, and that it was as Chinese as it was thoroughly Marxist. With this Chineseness in Mao’s doctrine, Chinese Marxism possesses its uniqueness, which is different from any other Marxism. Guided by Mao Zedong Thought, the Chinese Marxism, Chinese people not only won the victory in revolution, but also succeeded in socialist construction.
The essence of Mao Zedong Thought is the integration of Marxism with Chinese characteristics. During those revolutionary years, Mao’s strategy was to use countryside to surround the cities and finally to occupy the cities, a unique way with Chinese characteristics. In socialist construction, he did not copy the Soviet model, but constantly instruct the Party and the people to build socialism with Chinese characteristics. It is a misconception that it was Deng Xiaoping who first advocated socialism with Chinese characteristics, and that the system of theories on socialism with Chinese characteristics only includes Deng Xiaoping theory, the “three representations,” and the scientific development concept. Although the development of the above three theories involves sinicization of Marxism, there is only one official name for Chinese Marxism—Mao Zedong Thought. Those theories can be looked up as the development of Mao Zedong Thought, and most importantly, the latter should be included in the system of theories on socialism with Chinese characteristics.
4. A Study on the Life of Women Recorded in the Inscribed Boards of Luoyang
Zhiyuan Wang (王支援)
Luoyang Folk Custom Museum
During the past over 2000 years in the feudal society, the status of the
women was subordinate. Women were forced to live under the shadow of the
power of men in ancient times. In Luoyang Folk Custom Museum, there are
1365 pieces of inscribed boards collected which range from the time of
the Qing dynasty to the period of the Republic of China. Among them, 476
pieces were recorded about the lives of women in those days. After
studying those records, the author discussed the life of the women in
that period of time from five aspects, such as merits, virtues, birthday
congratulating, funeral rituals, and ancestral worship. The author thus
revealed that the ancient women were restricted with the thought of
Confucianism. Furthermore, he analyzed the cause that women were forced
to be subordinate to men.
CHINA’S AGRICULTURAL (LAND) REFORM AND ITS PROSPECTS
1. Guanzhong (James) Wen
2. Yueting Lee
University of Toledo
3. Shuming Lu
4. Yongjun Chen
China Remin University
DEVELOPMENT S OF LIBRARY AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
1. Create English Subtitles for Chinese Movies
University of Minnesota
2. Digital Resources and Services: Now and the Future
3. Dynamic China, Dynamic Data: Tools for Interdisciplinary Research on China
East View Information Services